- Oromandibular dystonia (OMD) is a focal dystonia.
- Symptoms include forceful contractions of the face, jaw, and/or tongue causing difficulty in opening and closing the mouth and often affecting chewing and speech.
- Treatments may include botulinum toxin injections, oral medications, and complementary therapies including speech and/or swallowing therapies.
- Oromandibular dystonia may be primary or secondary.
- Another word used to describe dystonia of this kind is cranial dystonia.
- Dystonia that affects the facial muscles and lips of musicians who play wind instruments is called embouchure dystonia.
- Dystonia that specifically affects the tongue is called lingual dystonia.
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